1. Cost: Windows is a proprietary operating system, while Linux is open-source and generally free. This affects not only the upfront costs but also the costs associated with licensing, updates, and support.
2. File Systems: Windows primarily uses the NTFS file system, while Linux supports a variety of file systems, such as ext4, XFS, and Btrfs. This can impact how data is stored and accessed on the server.
3. Command Line Interface: Linux heavily relies on the command line for system administration, while Windows has a more robust graphical user interface (GUI). However, Windows also has PowerShell, which is a powerful command-line tool.
4. Software Management: Linux uses package managers like apt, yum, or pacman for software installation and updates, while Windows relies on executable files and Windows Update.
5. Security: Linux is often considered more secure due to its open-source nature and inherent permissions structure. Windows has made significant strides in security, but it remains a larger target for malware and cyberattacks.
From what I've seen, the choice between Windows and Linux for system administration tasks often comes down to personal preference, familiarity, and the specific requirements of the organization.