Java is a statically-typed language, which means that the data types of variables must be declared at compile-time. This allows the compiler to optimize the code, making Java applications generally faster than Python programs. Additionally, Java's strong typing can help catch errors early in the development process.
On the other hand, Python is a dynamically-typed language, which means that data types are determined at runtime. This flexibility allows for more rapid development and can make the code easier to read and maintain. However, this can also result in slower performance compared to Java.
Python, with its simplicity and readability, is popular for scripting and automation tasks, as well as for web development, data analysis, and machine learning. Its extensive library ecosystem makes it easy to find and use tools for a wide variety of tasks.